Impact assessment of socioeconomic contextual influences on adoption of Peanut-CRSP-supported new technologies (NCS 07)
The goal of NCS 07 was designed around three thrusts. First, access the socioeconomic impacts of research led by the University of Georgia in the Philippines that led to the vitamin A fortification of peanut butter. Second, assess the socioeconomic changes and influences on adoption in North Carolina of Peanut-CRSP-supported research at North Carolina State University, with emphasis on new cultivars and integrated pest management. Third, assess the impacts of the Peanut CRSP research conducted by the University of Georgia on peanut related food processing, food science innovations in processing, and enhancing the marketability of peanuts in Thailand.
Consumers’ survey, in neighborhoods with stores selling fortified peanut butter in the Philippines showed that hundreds of Filipinos (15% of children) began consuming the newly Vitamin-A fortified peanut butter. In the long term, this would result in a reduction in Vitamin A deficiency in the population, which is widespread especially among children. A case study of Newborn Foods, Inc., the private company partner involved in the production of Vitamin A fortified peanut butter, showed that since its brand is the second largest selling brand of peanut butter in the market, the decision to fortify all its peanut butter produced could have impact in the consuming public, especially children. It also showed that while an additional six employees had to be hired, increased costs were minor compared to the sales increase and the generation of employment that occurred.
A case study of Marigold Commodities, Inc., another private company that adopted sorting technology to eliminate aflatoxin, showed that after being allowed to export “kare-kare” sauce containing peanut to the United States, its share of kare-kare export sauce increased from about 10% in 1999 to 45% in 2001. Also, 17% of Filipino households surveyed consumed the improved sauce that is aflatoxin-free (hand-sorted peanuts used in sauce), making a healthy peanut product available widely in the domestic and foreign markets.
In Thailand, plans were made in 2004 to measure the impact of six food technology workshops conducted by the Peanut SATT (Southeast Asian Technology Transfer) Center at Kasetsart University in 2003. Workshop participants were interviewed and site visits were carried out to check the application of skills and technology obtained from the training. Pre-test and post/test information of participants was analyzed to assess immediate new knowledge gained. The questionnaires were designed to incorporate relevant questions in the following areas; demographic information, farming practices, quality, post harvest practices, aflatoxin contamination, and products produced especially peanuts. Mail surveys, telephone interviews, and one-on-one interviews with individuals were made within six months after training.
Also, one-on-one interviews were made with three cooperatives – Supachai, Nongno, and Poe Tak and one company at Pitsanuluk. Among other impacts, results indicated that despite some increase in costs and labor, the adoption of the sorting and processing technology enabled the cooperatives and company to significantly improve the quality of their production and subsequently their sales. The members of the cooperative groups had a better life and had time for their family. Technologies gained in the course enabled them to produce good quality, aflatoxin-free products with tastes acceptable to consumers. Positive impacts were noted on the Thailand economy. People not involved in peanut production gained more knowledge on sorting technology, peanut production technology, peanut processing technology, and analysis of aflatoxin, which they shared/transferred to friends, extended family, their students, and others, particularly knowledge about aflatoxin.
The study also suggested that peanut processing technology was feasible under the appropriate conditions and should be considered by other cooperatives and companies. An annotated bibliography of over 200 publications from the Peanut-CRSP-funded research in North Carolina was completed and posted in the Peanut CRSP Website (Peanut CRSP.org). Preliminary results of a North Carolina peanut farmers’ survey showed that of Peanut-CRSP-developed integrated pest management (IPM) practices, weather based advisory for IPM adoption was preferred by farmers with a usage rate of 43-52% in 1999-2003. Of the Peanut-CRSP-developed varieties, American farmers preferred NCV 11 and NC 12C, which showed consistently adoption rated of about 40% in 1999-2003. Perry peanut variety reached this rate in 2002-2003.
Dr. Robert L. Moxley
North Carolina State University
Dr. David Jordan, North Carolina State University
Dr. Alicia Lustre, Food Development Center of National Food Authority, Manila
Flor Galvez, University of the Philippines at Diliman, Quezon City, Thailand
Dr. Penkwan Chompreeda, Kasetsart University, Bangkok
Prof. Vichai Haruthaithanasan, Kasetsart University, Bangkok